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Database management is a system for managing information that supports the organization’s business processes. It involves storing data, disseminating it to applications and users, editing it as needed, monitoring data changes, and preventing data corruption due to unexpected failure. It is an integral part of the overall infrastructure of a business which supports decision-making in corporate growth, as well as compliance with laws such as the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM along with others created the first database systems. They developed into information management systems (IMS), which allowed large amounts data to be stored and retrieved for a range of reasons. From calculating inventory to supporting complex financial accounting functions as well as human resource functions.

A database is a set of tables that store data in accordance with a certain scheme, like one-to-many relationships. It utilizes primary keys to identify records, and allow cross-references between tables. Each table has a set of fields, known as attributes, that provide information about the entities that comprise the data. Relational models, created by E. F. “Ted” Codd in the 1970s at IBM and IBM, are the most popular database type currently. The concept is based on normalizing data to make it easier to use. It also makes it easier to update data by avoiding the need to update various databases.

Most DBMSs can support multiple types of databases through different levels of internal and external organization. The internal level is focused on cost, scalability, as well as other operational issues, like the physical layout of the database. The external level is the representation of the database in user interfaces and applications. It can include a mixture of various external views based on different data models. It also can include virtual tables that are calculated using generic data in order to improve the performance.